Social, Technology, Economy, Environmental, and Political (STEEP) Landscapes in Philippine K to 12 Basic Education: Looking into the Lens and Perspective of Science Education
1Arlon P. Cadiz, 2Antriman V. Orleans, PhD
1Ernesto Rondon High School, Schools Division of Quezon City, Philippines
2Philippine Normal University, Manila, Philippines
Name: Arlon P. Cadiz
Address of Affiliation: Road 3, Project 6, Quezon City
The paradigm shift in education gearing towards achieving the goals of the 21st century teaching & learning enables everybody in all educational institutions to respond to the call of the challenge. Ensuring every key aspect and important element of successful curriculum implementation mainly lies on the significant impact on which the curriculum should serve its purpose. This paper presents critical review focusing on the highlights in which social, technology, economic, environmental, and political (STEEP) landscapes impact Philippine K to 12 Science Education. It follows an issues approach to about current concerns in relation to the faces of science education in the country vis-à-vis theoretical and philosophical perspectives. This paper provides scenarios highlighting the possible contributions of the different landscapes which could serve as areas to maintain good practices and/or potential areas for improvement to achieve the mission and vision of the Department of Education. There are challenges that the whole educational system in the country has been facing since the enhanced basic education curriculum was enacted and the Department of Education has been continuously looking for ways while laying strategic directions to lead the entire basic education institutions in achieving the standards of 21st century skills and learning outcomes along with the other countries in the Southeast Asian region and of the entire Asia. All educational institutions and educational advocates should continuously work together to enable the educational system in the country achieve inclusive growth and global competitiveness considering various landscapes that shape the educational landscape in the country.
Keywords: K to 12 Curriculum, Science Education, Education Landscapes in Philippine Education
Science education is one of the important keys to succeed in todays’ global expectations. The Department of Education continues to uphold its mandate not just for quality education for all Filipino children but also to keep the learners in the school so that no student is left behind. Every academic institution that governs by academic policies and under the supervision of the Department of Education is looking forward to learning outcomes of the 21st century. Curriculum implementers, our teachers, inside the classroom are expected to deliver the learning competencies which anchor on the expected skills of the 21st century that should be imbibed in our learners. The reforms in Philippine education in the present time would answer the needs and demands of the decade in improving the quality of education, quality of life, and quality of the society where our children live in. This drive of the educational system in the country would direct teachers and students to what kind of society is being projected for the next decade of years. There will be a big change in the type of classrooms, students’ learning interests, kinds of teaching approaches, the suitability of learning materials and resources, and even the manner of assessing and evaluating our 21st-century students. Our teachers should be harnessed primarily to be the 21st-century facilitators of learning. In other words, for the school to sustain the delivery of education, teachers should look into what is the demand and future of society. Time change and even the kind of students also change. It is time also for the teachers to teach the students based on the manner and how they should learn. At the end of the day, the main goal of teachers is to ensure that they have transpired and transcended the expected learning outcomes among the students so that they will become more suitable to what should they be in the next decade. The learning experiences of the students inside and outside of the classroom would strongly tell the direction of their careers in the future. In the Philippine educational landscape, K to 12 education has been looked upon as a better way to optimize the efficiency and competency of Filipino graduates (Ellar, 2015).
Since the teachers are the drivers of an educational system and given the fact that they are the direct implementers of the curriculum in the classroom, they show direction and guide the learners or students in the way that they should be. They also play a pivotal role in establishing students’ interest in learning the subject. As direct implementers of the curriculum in the classroom, they engage students in different learning experiences to develop students’ understanding. Teachers are expected also to deal with the needs and issues of the learners and demand of time if they reflect on their daily teaching-learning activities. Motivating students to learn, teachers find various ways on how to prepare applicable and appropriate pedagogical approaches suitable to the diverse needs of learners. This is the reflection of the presence of teachers inside a classroom.
However, several factors affect or hinder the education of Filipino learners to continue to the next level or even graduate in Basic Education. We cannot deny the reality that our learners today have been experiencing hardships, difficulties, and challenges in their path as they pursue to finish the education in all means that they know and they can. In other words, there are aspects or elements in our educational system that affect the success of the delivery of instruction as well as the achievement of the mission and vision in the Philippine Education. In my point of view, these elements serve as opportunities or barriers in the direction of education in the country which dictates also the future of our next generation of professionals, skilled workers, leaders, and citizens of this country. In this paper, ideas supported with related studies are presented in such a way that educational system in the country should look into the importance of social, technology, economy, environmental, and political landscapes which could be the guiding principles and core areas of why the Philippine Basic Education Curriculum in science exists to address the issues and concerns that are associated and related to it. Moreover, this paper provides scenarios highlighting the possible contributions of the different landscapes which could serve as areas to maintain good practices and/or potential areas for improvement to achieve the mission and vision of the Department of Education.
Social Landscape in Philippine Basic Education
Students nowadays are trying to expand their social community. Using social media has something to do with this. Students become more open to each other. They shared stories with each other even to they just meet quite sometimes. Communication is easy for them nowadays. This will be a good opportunity for each teacher to engage the students in discussions where the former could guide them towards the appropriate ways of exchanging ideas and insights positively. Teachers should be innovative also in trying to encapsulate students’ interests and social attributes. Moreover, they should have also an open mind trying to know my students well and how they interact with each other. Through this, it would be easy for them to understand the context of the students particularly the Gen Z learners. It would be also easy for the teachers to know the views of the students in terms of the manner of how they think and converse with each other. Tindowen (2007) stresses out the importance of classmates as a support group where they will feel no guilt or shame in sharing their ideas. The opportunity to collaborate and communicate among students is the focus of 21st-century learning. The strategy of the teacher is changed also based on the behavior of the students. Change in society means a change in the manner that a teacher should teach. It should be always kept in mind that teachers in the school should present approaches that could develop the minds of the students in learning how to think and practice what they learn. Teachers should find ways on how to engage learners in healthful discussions wherein students have the chance and opportunities to open up their sentiments about the relevant issues of the society. Teachers should show a willingness to listen. This is what the school should do. Let the voice of every student be heard to engage them to participate and think for the improvement of the school and success of the curriculum and the whole educational system as well.
Another important aspect of the social landscape in education is the engagement of parents in the school. Parents must have strong participation and involvement in school-related activities for students. Some of these activities would be attending a general meeting, meeting with class advisers and subject teachers, or school events, or by volunteering and serving a certain committee. Others would be written home-school communication, home assistance or tutoring, home educational enrichment that supports the child’s educational activities, and getting the child to school on time. Most commonly, the school has the active Parents-Teachers Association wherein teachers and parents implement programs for students. Many types of researches also support the importance and significance of home-school partnership wherein parents and teachers work together for students’ achievement and which in turn reduce students’ drop-outs. Home–school partnership has an impact on the academic performance of the child (Studsrod & Bru, 2009).
Parents’ involvement in the education of their children can make a significant difference in the educational attainment of those children (Makgopa & Mokhele, 2013). When parents are involved, “it can promote better cooperation between parents and the school”, thereby enhancing the child’s academic progress (Olatoye and Ogunkola, 2008). Students with parents who are involved in their school tend to have fewer behavioral problems and better academic performance and are more likely to complete high school than students whose parents are not involved in their school (Henderson et al., 1994). Baker and Scher (2002) argued that parents must have a critical role in their children’s academic performance. Involvement allows parents to monitor school and classroom activities, and to coordinate their efforts with teachers to encourage acceptable classroom behavior and ensure that the child completes schoolwork (Hill et al., 2004). Parent engagement in schools is reported as influencing student achievement, nurture the intelligence of young children (Schiffrin et al., 2015), and decrease school dropout rates (Park & Holloway, 2013). The parents, therefore, should be encouraged to get involved more in their children’s academics for better performance as they are key players in their children’s academic performance. Furthermore, active parents can provide greater insights into the home and community lives of children and be confident that students are being supported and well served (Robinson, 2017). Parental engagement can facilitate access for school leaders to engage parent collaborators that can serve to support and assist school leaders and school personnel, as they tend to all children (Epstein, 2001). A strong link between the parents and school would lead to the following outcomes: (1) solving the problems of the educational institute, which is the second home of students, with the help of parents; and (2) reducing the number of school dropouts (Iran Daily, 2015). Hence, the school should allow parents’ involvement so that they could contribute to aspects of educational decision-making at the school. The involvement of parents in a student’s education plays a significant role in students’ success in school (White & Kelly, 2010).
Technological Landscape in Philippine Basic Education
As a science teacher, there is a big change in the trend of the use of technology in school. Since our curriculum is expected to anchor on the expected 21st-century teaching and learning particularly in the aspect of utilization and in technology in education, science teachers should be updated with the trend of technology in education in science teaching. Our learners nowadays are ‘digital learners’, hence teachers are expected to somehow impart the use of technology as part of my learning resources as an aid to the type of strategy that they want to use to deliver the curriculum and let the students discover the science concepts. As claimed by Ryan and Cowie (2009), technology can foster independent as well as collaborative learning while Osborne and Hennessy (2003) asserted that ICT integration can enhance investigative learning in science. Technology is essential in teaching and learning science; it makes science fun to learn and enhances students’ learning. Educators had to integrate digital skills so that they can prepare their students to work in a highly digital workspace (James, 2019). She also added that the use of technology in the classroom needs guidance and knowledge on proper utilization to truly have an impact on student development. However, the problem is that computer laboratories for hands-on simulations are not available. There’s no access in internet connection. Students cannot also afford having internet connections at home. They just rely on rentals in computer shops but sometimes none due to financial reasons. Another problem is that there is lack of technology, lack of technical support, and teachers’ inability to use technology Limjap et.al., 2017). As a result, students see technology as an important factor in their learning but fail to appreciate the extent of its application in their education (Limjap et al., 2017).
Teachers have no choice but to integrate technology in their classrooms, not just for the sake of it but to facilitate their practice to improve and maximize students’ learning. Teachers can positively influence the phenomenon of learning if use appropriate teaching means. This is because the capacity of learners to engage in lifelong learning (through self-directed and collaborative inquiry) and connectedness (through communication and collaboration with peers and experts) can be supported by these technologies that assist with knowledge and skill development (Law & Yuen, 2006). But of course, there are still factors to consider in using technology in the classroom. First is the availability of those elements of technology in the school. There are computers in school. But those are not that enough to cater to all students for individual hands-on learning with or without internet connectivity. This scenario limits the delivery of instruction. It is therefore in the hands of the science teachers to find alternative ways/ strategies to deliver science concepts so that every student has the chance to experience the opportunity of being exposed to the importance of technology especially in the aspects of literacy and numeracy. Second is the availability of computer and internet connection at home. In the public school system, the majority of the students don’t have these things at home. They need to spend hours in renting spaces in the computer shop just to get the information needed as part of their requirements in school. This also limits the chance for every learner to explore and retrieve information online. These concerns challenged the school especially in the changing society wherein the teaching and learning delivery must continue despite of the difficulties and lack of sufficient resources. In this light, the school needs to find ways to cater to every learner in the use of technology. But of course, the teachers should be first motivated and encouraged (especially the seasoned teachers) to use the technology in their classes. This could be possible if they enough technical skills and capable of using technology in their lessons. In one of her statements on technology integration in the classroom, Clarissa Segismundo, the Education Programs Lead at Microsoft Philippines, explained the importance of digital tools in learning. She said that “Engaging students remains one of the core pillars in the digital transformation of education. How they use technology is crucial in promoting collaboration, critical thinking, and problem-solving skills”. Digital information has indeed made a relevant impact in the lives of our students. The projection of the demand of industries for digitally-skilled graduates is also increasing. Hence, governments, schools, and groups with interest in education have therefore recognized and acknowledged this impact of technology and have invested hugely in technological resources with the hope that technology will facilitate and improve teaching and learning.
Economic Landscape in Philippine Basic Education
The economy reflects the kind of education that we have in the country. Education increases the innovative capacity of an economy and facilitates the diffusion, adoption, and adaptation of new ideas (Yap, 2012). It should go together and follows a cycle. A stronger economy means a lot for education, particularly in the school setting. A basic example is sufficient funds for projected expenses about the operations and maintenance of the school. Specifically, the school is financially capable of providing the needs of the teachers and the students such as learning materials, conducive classrooms, facilities/equipment, and other important things that would contribute to effective teaching and learning. This reflects the quality of education that every school can provide. Aside from what the government can provide, external stakeholders such as non-governmental or private companies would also sponsor school activities and programs as part of their plans in helping the schools. They have enough money allotted for that sponsorship program. The cycle continues since the companies need qualified graduates to work for them and enough workforces depending on what kind of job that these companies can offer. The greater the initiative of students and develop their skills, the greater the advantage they will utilize their skills in careers to come (Pack, 2016). As long as there is a proper use of funds and the partnership between the school and the companies become successful, the school can ensure now that all students will have enough support and this is to avoid drop-outs and other problems in education that the school has to address.
When schools are improved, and a given amount of spending on education results in more human capital acquired, this causes the expected rate of return on human capital to fall and hence increases the attraction of investing in physical capital, which calls for increased savings and investment (Gylfason & Zoega, 2003). Education increases the amount of human capital available, thereby increasing productivity and ultimately output. Education is especially important in a rapidly evolving economic environment where a rapid rate of job destruction and creation might otherwise lead to a gap between the skills demanded in the labor market and the skills of job-seekers (Yap, 2012). Based on the study conducted by Switzerland-based business school International Institute for Management Development (IMD), its director Arturo Bris shared that the Philippines witnessed a deterioration of its ability to provide the economy with the skills needed, which points to a mismatch between school curriculums and the demands of companies. The report is suggesting that the country participate consistently in international learning assessments to make Filipino learners and graduates globally competitive. This is a scenario that the Philippines should improve its educational system to improve the economy of the country. Education has been one of the key determinants of economic growth (Gylfason & Zoega, 2003). However, the primary reason that hinders students from coming to school is economic-related issues. Students experience financial constraints in their schooling particularly in buying things for school or family income is not enough to support their projects and other basic materials and activities that need an amount of money. Financial reasons were a major cause for school leaving among secondary school dropouts (Nava, 2009). Students who develop education and career navigation knowledge and skills are likely to: have expanded education and career opportunities (Zikica & Klehe, 2006); make education and career decisions that better fit them (Hirschi, 2011). With a higher-quality higher education system, the Philippines would then be better placed to reap the well-documented economic benefits of an educated population (Yap, 2012).
Environmental Landscape in Philippine Basic Education
Science teachers are expected to implement the science curriculum to guide the students in achieving indispensable skills of the 21st century as well as to obtain the target goals of the Department of Education by engaging the students in discussions of relevant issues that involve science, technology, and environment. Aside from other landscapes presented in this paper, environmental landscape could also give possible effects to K to 12 basic education. School environment is one of the most important factors affecting students’ learning. It is the right of every learner to have a healthy and safe learning environment. As a developing country, Philippine education system have been considering important key elements of successful delivery of services such as the curriculum, learning resources and materials, competency of teachers, utilization of technology in classroom instruction, strengthening the support of stakeholders and industries, and improvement of school facilities. Education leaders find ways to align the way students’ think by making school learning environment available for students to think critically, uplift their learning capacity and increase students’ achievement while increasing collaboration and work interactively with their classmates. With the support of policymakers and business people, the country’s system of education is gearing towards the need to ensure that students will achieve the 21st century skills such as teamwork, collaboration, effective communication, and critical & creative skills. However, there are difficulties that schools are facing relative to school learning environment. The quality of learning environment that is significant to pupils’ everyday learning. If schools do not have facilities, teachers and other learning resources, the learning of pupils might be adversely affected (Cardenas & Cerrado, 2016). Altmann (2015) discusses how school and classroom space learning environment influence education. He mentioned that aspects such as school and classroom designs including physical arrangements, space, and size of the classroom contributes to the learning outcomes of the students. Overcrowded classroom conditions not only make it difficult for students to concentrate on their lessons, but inevitably limit the amount of time teachers can spend on innovative teaching methods such as cooperative learning and group work or on teaching anything beyond the bare minimum required by the curriculum (Jones, 2017). Aside from the crowded classrooms, Joshi, Pandit, & Kuma, 2005, mentioned in this study various poor environmental conditions which include poor ventilation, shortage of clean drinking water, unhygienic or untidy clothing worn by pupils, poor nutrition, lack of greenery in the school area, air pollution and lack of environmental awareness among teachers. In the area of environmental awareness, evidence suggests that teachers possess narrow mental models of the environment (Mosely, Desjean-Perrotta, & Utley, 2010), and lack a background in environmental issues (Forbes & Zint, 2011). Another issue is that the lack of environmental knowledge, awareness, and behavior among the students require the intervention of committed teachers to play their role in implementing environmental education at school so that these students’ awareness and behavior towards their environment can be developed (Rahman et al., 2018). These challenges need to be resolved to ensure the effectiveness of environmental education in terms of changing the behaviors of the younger generation towards responsible environmental behavior.
The Department of Education is looking into significant programs towards the realization of its mandate and goal to deliver quality, accessible, relevant, and liberating basic education for all Filipino learners. The Department of Education (DepEd) in partnership with the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) are jointly strengthening the WASH in Schools program in the DepEd community in order to promote hygiene among students and to contribute to the Social Development Goals global agenda. In 2016, the Department of Education issued the DepEd Order #10 to present the policy and guidelines for the comprehensive water, sanitation, and hygiene in schools (WinS) program for the promotion of correct hygiene and sanitation practices among learners in all learning institutions as well as in the maintaining a safe and healthy school learning environment. The key components of WinS Program are: availability of safe drinking water on a daily basis; safe water for cleaning in school; adequate, clean, and functional toilets; supervised daily group hand-washing with soap and brushing of teeth with fluoride toothpaste among learners; environmental sanitation; semi-annual de-worming of schoolchildren; safe practices in food handling and preparation; effective menstrual hygiene management; health education for all students and personnel; and capacity building for all DepEd program implementers (Malipot, 2017).
Another important factor that every science educator can do for the students is to provide a meaningful yet positive learning experience in the school. Teachers create a positive learning environment where students are motivated to learn within the boundaries of a safe learning atmosphere. Teachers’ strong commitment will help in overcoming the constraints and challenges as perceived by the teachers themselves (Rahman et al., 2018). A positive learning atmosphere is where teachers and students interact and have the rapport in sharing what needs to be discussed. Students feel comfortable to share their ideas because the teachers show their care to the students. An effective learning environment helps students to realize their limitations and turn it into learning. In this learning environment, teachers often expected to provide feedback that is constructive and not harmful for the students.
Another issue that should be addressed is the effect of weather disturbances or hydrometeorological hazards that lead to dropping out of some students because of flooding in their places of residence, or disaster-prone areas, due to heavy rainfall. Others are geological hazards such as landslides or mudslides that could also pose problems to some students ensuring their safety instead of going to school. Another factor that affects the dropout rate is disasters (Amoroso & Bajo, 2014). Some countries, however, struggle with the issue of increasing school dropout rates, which is fast becoming a serious social problem (SEAMEO INNOTECH, 2017). School learning environment also serves a good place to simulate social issues related to science concepts such as global warming, mining, types of pollution, disaster readiness and risk reduction, and the like. As an example, the integration of practical applications of the science lessons in the issues of the environment. Various activities to engage students in educative experiences may be provided as part of the school programs to sustain learning experiences of students while inside and outside the school (Abrea, 2015). Aside from having participating in different activities related to environmental education, science teachers can use technological applications to engage students in advocating environmental education online. They can share infographics, video presentations, and blog posts related to environmental protection and conservation. Our students are considered as ‘digital natives’ hence, tasks which can enhance their technological skills while having social skills are recommended. If ICT can promote the effectiveness of environmental education, educators should carefully consider it. The effective use of ICT in a supplementary manner to the direct experience method would enhance the curriculum of environmental education (Caivazidis, Lazaridou, & Hellden, 2007). The collaboration of school’s stakeholders is important in in the processes involved in sustaining the environmental education programs.
As an educational social institution, the school is the right avenue to develop students’ skills, knowledge, and values by educating them to be competent, creative and responsible participants of the school learning environment. One of the indicators for successful participation of students in school processes would not be only what students know academically, but rather what they want to and can do independently or in collaboration with others. Authentic student participation in school processes is also an essential element of personally meaningful learning (Simovska, 2004). Participation presupposes improving students’ self‐awareness, decision‐making and collaboration skills, connecting students among themselves and with the school, and empowering both students and school communities. It also empowers learners to make informed decisions and responsible actions for environmental integrity, economic viability and just society for present and future generations. Other bodies such as the Department of Science and Technology – Science Education Institute (DOST-SEI), Department of Environment and Natural Resources – Environmental Management Bureau (DENR-EMB), Non-Government Organizations (NGOs), Junior Environment Advocacy Program (JEAP) of the Local Government Units (LGUs), and Youth for the Environment in School Organizations (YES-O) have involved themselves in implementing relevant projects and programs towards ensuring school environment safe for all students. A comprehensive plan supported by laws and policies from our law-makers and authorities from Department of Education with the support of industry sectors can help to improve the 21st century school learning environment for the students.
Political Landscape in Philippine Basic Education
Since the school is bounded in the policy of the government, it is also inevitable to whatever changes in terms of governance. The political landscape is changing the educational landscape of the country. This is mainly because of the drive of the present administration when it comes to the uplifting of the learning achievement of the students. Different political platforms mean different directions and targets because politicians have different areas of focus. These people are policymakers and whatever policy approved and implemented would be the legal aspects that the school has to follow. The implementation of these policies will bring significant reforms not just in the life of every teacher but also in the lives of their students too. In my opinion, particularly in the aspect of the present administration, I can feel that our politicians give their support to the president on his plans for the common good of the people. But there are still criticisms about his leadership and management styles. In terms of salary increase, for example, the teachers are asking for it because the present salary grade is not enough to sustain the needs of the families. The implementation of the train law triggers price hikes in basic commodities and has brought chain effect in the lives of our teachers. Politicians drafted their versions of salary increase for teachers but still, it is in the hands of the president if he will push through with it or not. On the other hand, the lives of our students are also affected. They are affected primarily in dealing with the laws and policies implemented in their community. The challenges and problems that they face in the community will also affect their outlook in the school. Our students nowadays are now reactive that they also share their opinions about the political issue in the country.
Politics in education is an issue that presently pervades the educational system in the country (Durban & Catalan, 2012). They shared that a sad reality that is happening right now is the formulation of policies with the main purpose of making our educational system at par with those in other countries, but there are no concrete guidelines as to how these are to be implemented. As a common practice, school heads seek financial support from politicians to be able to sustain various school projects. It would be a good way that assistance of local government units is being extended to the school since the school considered them as external stakeholders. We cannot deny the fact that politicians are important people in the success of the delivery of educational services. However, if the support given by politicians will be equated by some favors from school officials, this becomes a concern by everybody. This paper argues that there should be strong partnership with the school and its external stakeholders including the local government units. However, the processing of important documents is a concern prior to the release of budget. This is to ensure transparency and accountability in government operations. Both transparency and accountability serve as cleansing mechanisms to check and exert pressure on the bureaucracy to respond to public demands with ease and quality (Gabriel, 2018). Politicians can contribute in the change of educational landscape in the country to make this country a better place for the students, starting from improving educational system, who are the primary beneficiaries of educational process, because of their support to the educational policies. The welfare of our teachers should be also recognized as important factor in educating the future leaders of this nation. Hence, laws pertaining to upholding the competency of teachers, sufficient learning materials, and of compensation must be taken into consideration. The quality of our teachers reflects on the quality of education that every learner deserves. The competence of the teachers in the standards associates or influences their teaching performance (Roberto & Madrigal, 2019).
STEEP Landscape in Research and Development of Science Teaching
In the Philippines, science education has been one of the top priorities as evidenced, by implementing a specific strand in the K to12 curriculum. Science plays a vital role in the countries’ success which also provides worldwide opportunity through innovations and research and development. There are various promising researches that contribute to the improvement and development of science teaching practices. The department of education has been providing capacity building for teachers on how to conduct researches that anchor on the recommended research agenda such as in curriculum development, teaching and learning delivery, gender and development, governance, and others. In this manner, the STEEP landscapes are good opportunities for every teacher as guide on achieving the purpose of why they will conduct researchers. Educational policies anchored on the relevant findings of their research outputs will be the basis in determining the direction of education in the country. Every teacher should acquire, understand and see the opportunities of conducting classroom-based action researches. These researches implemented in the classroom could be useful tools in improving the learning of students and make science fun and interactive. These researches of teachers could be: (1) strategies to enhance the achievement of students; (2) innovations to provide the interactive ways of instructional delivery and assessment; and (3) interventions to scaffold students’ performance and help them achieve the expected learning outcomes by all means. Action researches done by the teachers could also provide a basis for policy decisions for the Department of Education and in the implementation of programs and activities for students. Through the mandate of the Department of Education to protect and promote the basic rights of every Filipino student to complete basic education, teachers are encouraged to conduct researches that will also promote the 21st-century learners to equip the students with the knowledge, skills, values, and attitudes to empower them to be key players in a complex and competitive environment which in turn the real society they are with.
CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS
Science teachers cannot deny the fact that society changes dramatically. Science teachers believe that science education has to be continuously improved to become more responsive when it comes to the needs of society even in changing society. It is mainly because, science teachers contribute to nation building that educate and inspire students who are scientifically, technologically, environmentally literate. In the context of the school, science teachers should ensure that students will be more prepared to align their skills and abilities according to the society that they are dwelling with. They are more challenged when it comes to imploring the teaching-learning process effectively inside their classrooms most especially the demands of the 21st century. Moreover, science teachers should consistently deliver the curriculum prescribed by the Department of Education and plan for an appropriate strategy by all means while reflecting for the limitations as opportunities for improvement. All educational institutions and educational advocates should continuously work together to make the educational system in the country achieve inclusive growth and global competitiveness. There should be equal learning opportunities for all learners by all means. Furthermore, the department of education should also intensity effective collaboration and partnerships among schools’ stakeholders. It is the hope of everyone that the actions of our educational leaders would really strengthen the aim of education towards moving forward and improve the quality of life of every Filipino in the country considering the relevance of various landscapes that affect the educational landscape of the country as a whole.
Abrea, R.R. (2015). Status of Co-Curricular and Extra Class Activities of Student Organizations from Selected Tertiary Institutions in the Philippines, Asia Pacific Journal of Multidisciplinary Research, Vol. 3, No. 4.
Altmann, U.S. (2015). Learning Environment: The Influence of School and Classroom Space on Education. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/282348767_Learning_Environment_
Amoroso, V., & Bajo, A. (2014, June 12). Philippine Drop Outs Rising since 2007. The Philippine Star.
Baker, L. & Scher, D. (2002). Beginning readers’ motivation for reading in relation to parental beliefs and home reading experiences. Reading Psychology, 23, 239-269.
Cardenas, H.J.C. & Cerado, E.C. (2016). School Climate, Teachers’ Efficiency and Learning Outcomes in Koronadal City Schools Division, Philippines. Journal of Modern Education Review, Volume 6, No. 1, pp. 19–25. Doi: 10.15341/jmer(2155-7993)/01.06.2016/003
DepEd Order No. 10, s. 2016. Policy and Guidelines for the Comprehensive Water, Sanitation and Hygiene in Schools (WinS) program. Retrieved from https://www.deped.gov.ph/2016/02/19/do-10-s-2016-policy-and-guidelines-for-the-comprehensive-water-sanitation-and-hygiene-in-schools-wins-program/
Durban, J.M. & Catalan, R.D. (2012). Issues and Concerns of Philippine Education through the Years. Asian Journal of Social Science and Humanities, 1 (2), 61 – 69.
Ellar, A.J. (2015). Philippine K to 12 System in the Post-modern Educational Landscape. Baybayin, 1 (1), 48 – 68.
Epstein, J.L. (2001), School, Family, and Community Partnerships: Preparing Educators and Improving Schools, Vol. 5500, Westview Press, Boulder, CO.
Forbes, C. T. & Zint, M. (2011) Elementary teachers’ beliefs about, perceived competencies for, and reported use of scientific inquiry to promote student learning about and for the environment. The Journal of Environmental Education, 2(1).
Gabriel, A.G. (2018). Bureaucratic Red Tape in the Philippines. Retrieved from https://link.springer.com/referenceworkentry/10.1007%2F978-3-319-31816-5_3523-2
Gylfason, T., & Zoega, G. (2003). Education, Social Equality and Economic Growth: A View of the Landscape. CESifo Economic Studies, 49, 557–579.
Henderson, A. T., and Berla, N. (1994). A new generation of evidence: The family is critical to student achievement. Washington, DC: National Committee for Citizens in Education.
Hill, N., and Taylor, L. (2004). Parental school involvement and children’s academic achievement: Pragmatics and issues. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 13(4) 161-164.
Hirschi, A. (2011). Career-Choice Readiness in Adolescence: Developmental Trajectories and Individual Differences. Journal of Vocational Behavior 79, no. 2: 340–348.
Iran Daily (2015). Role of Parents in Academic Achievement of Students. Retrieved from www.Iran-Daily.com/news/111485.html
James, I. (2019). Digitally transforming PH educational landscape. The Manila Times. Retrieved from https://www.manilatimes.net/2018/08/19/business/digitally-transforming-ph-educational-landscape/431909/431909/ Accessed September 15, 2019.
Jones, N. (2016). School Congestion in the Philippines: A Breakthrough Solution. Retrieved from https://asiafoundation.org/2017/04/05/school-congestion-philippines-breakthrough-solution/
Joshi, S.D., Pandit, N. & Kuma, S. (2005). The school environment and its impact on children’s health in developing country. Environmental Epidemiology, 16 (5). Retrieved from https://journals.lww.com/epidem/Fulltext/2005/09000/THE_SCHOOL_ENVIRONMENT_AND_ITS_IMPACT_ON.401.aspx?WT.mc_id=HPxADx20100319xMP
Law, N., & Yuen, A.H.K. (2006). Pedagogy and ICT use in schools around the world: Findings from the IEA SITES 2006 study. In N. Law, W. Pelgrum & T. Plomp (Eds.), Pedagogy and ICT use in schools around the world: Findings from the SITES 2006 study. Hong Kong: CERC, University of Hong Kong.
Makgopa M & Mokhele M 2013. Teachers’ perceptions on parental involvement: A case study of two South African schools. Journal of Educational and Social Research, 3(3):219-225. doi: 10.5901/jesr.2013.v3n3p219
Malipot, M.H. (2019). DepEd cites gains in sanitation and hygiene practice of learners. https://news.mb.com.ph/2019/11/23/deped-cites-gains-in-sanitation-and-hygiene-practice-of-learners/
Mathew, P., Mathew, P., & Peechattu, P. J. (2017). REFLECTIVE PRACTICES: A MEANS TO TEACHER DEVELOPMENT. Asia Pacific Journal of Contemporary Education and Communication Technology (APJCECT), 3(1), 126-131.
Mosely, C., Desjean-Perrotta, B., and Utley, J. (2010) The Draw-an-environment test rubric (DAET-R): Exploring pre-service teachers’ mental models of the environment. Environmental Education Research, Vol. 16, No. 2.
Nava, F. G. (2009, December). Factors in School Leaving: Variations across Gender Groups, School Levels and Locations. Education Quarterly, 67(1), 62-78.
Olatoye RA & Ogunkola BJ 2008. Parental involvement, interest in schooling and science achievement of junior secondary school students in Ogun State, Nigeria. College Teaching Methods & Styles Journal, 4(8):33-40.
Osborne, J., & Hennessy, S. (2003). Literature review in science education and the role of ICT: Promise, problems and future directions Futurelab Series Report 6.
Park, S. and Holloway, S.D. (2013), “No parent left behind: predicting parental involvement in adolescents’ education within a sociodemographically diverse population”, The Journal of Educational Research, Vol. 106 No. 2, pp. 105-119.
Rahman, N. A., Halim, L., Ahmad, A. R., & Soh, T. M. T. (2018). Challenges of environmental education: Inculcating behavioural changes among indigenous students. Creative Education, 9, 43-55. https://doi.org/10.4236/ce.2018.91004
Roberto, J. & Madrigal, D.V. (2018). Teacher Quality in the Light of the Philippine Professional Standards for Teachers. Philippine Social Science Journal, Volume 1, Number 1, pp. 67 – 79.
Robinson, D.V. (2017),”Collaborative partnerships between high poverty and minority parents and educational leaders Reversing the school and home divide”, Journal for Multicultural Education, Vol. 11 Iss 1 pp. 2 – 18 Permanent link to this document: http://dx.doi.org/10.1108/JME-11-2015-0035
Ryan, B., & Cowie, B. (2009). Exploring the use of an interactive whiteboard in a primary science classroom. Set: Research Information for Teachers (1), 43-48.
Schiffrin, H.H., Godfrey, H., Liss, M. and Erchull, M.J. (2015), “Intensive parenting: does it have the desired impact on child outcomes?”. Journal of Child and Family Studies, Vol. 24 No. 8, pp. 2322-2331.
SEAMEO. (2017). E-IMPACT Guidebook. Commonwealth Avenue Diliman, Quezon City.
Simovska, V. and Sheehan, M. (2000) Worlds apart or of like minds? Mental health promotion in Macedonian and Australian schools. Health Education,100, 216 – 223.
Studsrod I & Bru E 2009. The role of perceived parental socialization practices in school adjustment among Norwegian upper secondary school students. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 79(3):529-546. doi: 10.1348/000709908X381771
Tindowen, D. C., Bassig, J., & Cagurangan, J.-A. (2017, July). Twenty-First-Century Skills of Alternative Learning System Learners. SAGE Open, 1-8.
White, S. W., & Kelly, F. D. (2010). The school counselor’s role in school dropout prevention. Journal of Counseling & Development, 88, 227–235.
Yap, J. (2012). Improving the Quality of Education in the Philippines. Retrieved from: Asian Scientist Magazine at: https://www.asianscientist.com/2012/08/academia/philippines-education-asia-pacific-josef-yap-pids-2012/
Zikica, J. & Klehe, C. (2006). Job Loss as a Blessing in Disguise: The Role of Career Exploration and Career Planning in Predicting Reemployment Quality. Journal of Vocational Behavior 69, no. 3: 391–409.